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Do you like to collect shells and listen to the sound of waves when you spend time at the sea? And have you taste fried fish caught just a moment before? The Baltic Sea with its picturesque beaches still attracts many tourists, who often know very little about it; but its history, flora and fauna are worth to be familiar with…

We can distinguish a couple of stages in the Baltic Sea development. The first one is known as the creation of the Baltic Ice Lake from the waters of a melting glacial ice. The Arctic climate that dominated back then, did not favour fauna and flora which had been very poor. But 10 thousand years ago, in the second phase of the Baltic Sea creation progress, the situation improved. In this period of time, the Yoldia Sea rose from the salty oceanic water and gained new marine species, some of them existing until today. In the next stage the Baltic Sea became a lake once more, after the land of present Scandinavia was released from the melting glacier’s weight, started to rise up and separated the Baltic Sea from the ocean. The climate got warmer, the water salinity decreased. Seven thousands years ago, the Ancylus Lake (as the Baltic is called in reference to this period of time) was connected to the North Sea through the Danish straits, and its waters became suitable for typical marine life. The boreal flora and fauna developed here, and occurs in our sea nowadays too. When the bottom of the Danish straits rose once again, the inflow of oceanic waters from the North Sea weakened. The Baltic Sea salinity decreased. Didn’t you just ask yourself a question, what the future fate of the Baltic Sea would be? Think about all the fascinating changes it had already gone through…
The majority of plants and animals in the Baltic Sea are marine species which are very tolerant to the salinity fluctuations. This fact is, of course, directly related to the history of the Baltic Sea from the moment of its creation.

The most frequent species here are cods, herrings and prawns. Due to the protective activities (spawning protective periods, fisheries management, fishing techniques, fish stocking), the condition of majority of the Baltic Sea fish species improves, even though their quantity had been decreasing before.

Nekton, the environmental group of large animals, also comprises – apart from fish – a couple of the marine mammals: the Grey seal, the Ringed seal, the Common seal and the dolphin’s relative – the Porpoise. At the shallow stony bottom, among other crustaceans, mussels, jellyfish and snails live.

Among the tiniest floral organisms that are satisfied with the Baltic Sea conditions, we can find diatoms and blue-green algae. Seagrasses, and other plants fixed in the sea bottom, also live here.

The Baltic Sea is abundant in mineral resources: crude oil, natural gas, aggregates, amber created from the Scandinavian conifer trees’ resin and heavy minerals.

If you find yourself at the Baltic Sea seaside with this knowledge , look into the far waves, and think of the treasures hidden beneath…